According to Human Genetics, which publishes all relevant research theories, thesis and rebuttals with respect to the field of genetics and “human genetics” in particular, now believes that blue eyes and all the various iridescent shades of the same can be traced easily back to a particular region situated somewhere between the Black Sea and Afghanistan. It is in this place that some 6000 to 10,000 years ago, a certain mutation arose that gave rise to the blue iris.
According to Hans Eiber, a Danish researcher at the University of Copenhagen – “Initially, there was only brown eyes in the region. Then somewhere along the line, a specific change occurred in the OCA2 gene that simply shut down the capacity to produce a brown iris in some humans.” He currently conducts studies on genetics with his team of students at the University on similar mutations.
It is also believed that a mutation is responsible in the production of melanin and that this gene mutation happened during the Neolithic period. Because of this mutation, the hair, skin and eye colours were determined and brown shrank which cleared up the iris. It is worth nothing here though that albinos have absolutely inactive OCA2 genes, which is why they have no pigmentation or melanin in their body.
In a decade since 1996, Eiber conducted a more thorough research examining the mitochondrial DNA of any individual with blue eyes arising from Turkey, Denmark, Jordan and India. It was the result of this survey that his team of researchers were able to tell the OCA2 gene being responsible specifically for eye colour. He published his theory back in 2006 and continues to further refine the study and research trying to figure out what other genes may be responsible for skin and hair colour.
So why is it that as humans we separate each other socially at almost any chance we have? (even in education) Well the answer to that is embedded in the study of anthropology and not genetics, a field which is arguably even more fascinating with no solid right/wrong answers.